Getting started with Linux
hdc: CREATIVECD2421E, ATAPI CDROM drive
ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
ide1 at 0x170-0x177,0x376 on irq 15
Floppy drive(s): fd0 is 1.44M
FDC 0 is a post-1991 82077
md driver 0.35 MAX_MD_DEV=4, MAX_REAL=8
raid0 personality registered
DLCI driver v0.30, 12 Sep 1996, mike.mclagan@Linux.org.
hda: hda1 hda2
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.
Adding Swap: 16092k swap-space (priority -1)
Soundblaster audio driver Copyright (C) by Hannu Savolainen 1993-1996
SB 3.1 detected OK (220)
sb: Interrupt test on IRQ5 failed - device disabled.
YM3812 and OPL-3 driver Copyright (C) by Hannu Savolainen, Rob Hooft
sysctl: ip forwarding off
Swansea University Computer Society IPX 0.34 for NET3.035
IPX Portions Copyright (c) 1995 Caldera, Inc.
You will realise that the messages scrolled down before you could read
them. To see them page by page type "dmesg | less" or "dmesg | more".
The dmesg command provides valuable information about the hardware
devices detected by Linux. It also helps in knowing if there was some
problem somewhere. Like if you see the line: sb: Interrupt test on
IRQ5 failed - device disabled. It means there was a problem with
setting up of the Sound Blaster sound card at IRQ5. If you get such
errors, it may mean that some of your hardware is not working
correctly under Linux.
The BASH shell has a lot of ease of use. If you like working a lot on
the command line, you will find it very easy. The bash shell allows
using the previous command by press the up arrow key. You can also
search for previous commands by typing "CTRL-R" and typing some words
from the previous commands. To clear the screen press CTRL-L or simply
Another important command is df. Just type "df" and you will see
Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Available Capacity Mounted on
/dev/hda6 388362 341804 26501 93% /
/dev/hda5 614672 572176 42496 93% /dosd
This gives information of all your mounted hard disk partitions,
available space and used space. The space shown is 1024 blocks which
is 1024 bytes or one Kilo Byte. It also shows at which directory the